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The term "aromatherapy" was coined in the 1920's by a French perfumer named Rene Gattfosse. The word therapy in and of itself implies the need for treatment of an illness or disability. While it is true that all four of the above mentioned areas of application (1. 2. 3. 4. ) could and often times do manifest themselves as acute or chronic conditions that require treatment which the essential oils can be effective in treating, we would also like to encourage the use of aromatherapy for everyday pleasure and well-being.

1. What are Essential Oils?

Essential Oils are highly concentrated and potent oils extracted from plants, leaves, flowers, roots, buds, twigs, rhizomes, heartwood, bark, resin, seeds and fruits. Essential Oils are found in special secretory glands or cells within plant life. The aromatic substances are formed and stored in certain organs of a plant as a by-product or because of its metabolism. Each essential oil has it's very own blueprint that is absolutely unique. The combination of the plants blueprints, the energy of the sun, soil, air and water gives each oil its individual perfume and beneficial healing properties. The same species of plant can produce an essential oil with different properties depending on whether it was grown in dry or damp earth, at high or low altitude, or even in hot or cold climates. According to the International Organization for Standardization, essential oils are a "product made by distillation with either water or steam or by mechanical processing of citrus rinds or by dry distillation of natural materials. Following the distillation, the essential oil is physically separated from the water phase."

Unlike vegetable oils expressed from nuts and seeds, essential oils are not actually oily. Some essential oils are viscous; others are fairly solid and most are somewhat watery. Worldwide there are 3000 different essential oils with only about 300 commonly used. Essential oils are the most concentrated form of any botanical. It takes at least one pound of any given plant to create one drop of essential oil. Essential oils provide a concentrated dose of nature's vast pharmacological active ingredients in a single drop of oil. One hundred percent pure unadulterated essential oils are distinguished by a remarkable diversity of substances that only nature could produce.

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2. Plants?

Plants smell for two main reasons, defense and attraction. The aromatic oils promote a plant's growth, aid in reproduction by attracting insects, repel predators, and protect them from disease. Some leaves, roots and barks have smelly molecules that are unappetizing or sickening and inhibit the growth of neighboring plants, molds, fungus and smelly molecules to defend against being browsed or chewed. Flowers and fruit need to attract animals and insects for pollination and seed dispersal, so they have a sweet tempting and attractive fragrance. Plants communicate through these chemical signals, messages of scent.

Humans and animals depend on plants. A sick sheep will eat yarrow, lizards eat chamomile to relieve snake bites, cats and dogs chew on grass for stomach problems and bears will eat bear garlic as a spring tonic upon awakening from hibernation. The "therapeutic" action of essential oils is attributed to the naturally occurring chemical within the plants. There are a variety of uses for plants ranging from essential oils, spices, teas, to beautifying our environment and providing herbal remedies. Plants are chemical factories, which draw energy from light, darkness, sun and earth for synthesizing these into molecules of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. They are the "crude fuels" that humans and animals break down to produce adenosine triphosphate, our "high-grade fuel", when we ingest foods. Essential oils are the "high-grade fuel" of the plants themselves, the purest and highest form of the plants structure.

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3. What is Aromatherapy and Aromachology?

Aromatherapy is the art of treating the body, mind and spirit with natural aromatic substances harvested from nature's rich store. "Aroma" refers to the aromatic substances that give essential oils their characteristic smell. "Therapy" refers to the fact that essential oils have been used for healing for centuries. Aromatherapy also refers to the use of essential oils for beauty and body care treatment. Aromatherapy is one the most popular beauty treatments worldwide in clinics and spas throughout Europe.

Aromatherapy also refers to the medical practice of using essential oils in some countries. Finally, aromatherapy refers to the layman's use of essential oils for personal home use of essential oils and products containing pure unadulterated essential oils. Aromachology is the study of psychology and odors. The terms aromatherapy and aromachology are often used to differentiate the science, study and theory (aromachology) from the application by clinicians and aromatherapists (aromatherapy).

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4. Inhalation of Essential Oils : The Psychology and Physiology?

Essential Oils enter the body through the skin and nose. They have tiny molecules, which disperse into the air and reach the nose. When inhaled the oils reach the olfactory epithelium, a small patch at the top of the nasal cavity, which contains about 5 million receptor cells. Odors are converted into messages, which are relayed to the brain for processing.

Brain activity has been observed and documented by brain scans and other imaging techniques. Smell triggers psychological and physiological responses in the body. Smell receptor cells transmit impulses about the smell to the olfactory area of the brain in the limbic system, which is linked to memory, emotions, hormones, sexuality, and heart rate. These impulses trigger neuro-chemicals and endorphins that can stimulate, sedate, relax, produce gratifying sensations, restore emotional equilibrium, or cause euphoria, thereby bringing about a mental and a physical change.

The limbic system plays an important role in provoking feelings and memories and can assist in stimulating learning and retention. The limbic system works in coordination with the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus area of the brain to regulate the hormonal activities of the endocrine system, triggering the production of hormones that govern appetite, body temperature, insulin production, overall metabolism which influence immunity, stress levels, sex drive, conscious thoughts and reactions. In the limbic system is the amygdala where we process anger; the septum pellucidum, where we process pleasure sensations; and the hippocampus, which regulates how much attention we give our emotions and memories.

Additionally, smells have a powerful effect on the sex drive. One out of every four people who suffer from anosmia, a loss or impairment of smell, lose interest in sexual activity. Smells trigger a memory response. Smell memories may trigger changes in body temperature, appetite, stress level and sexual arousal. There are no short-term memories with odors, that is why a whiff of a familiar perfume can bring back a flood of memories so vivid it brings tears of joy because of the direct physical route which exists between memory and smell. Smells can transport us through time and distance. Have you ever walked into a room and smelled the exact smell your Grandmother wore, and found yourself smiling warmly without even realizing it. Conversely if you come across a smell that floods you with negative memories you may find your heart rate racing and a nauseous feeling at the pit of your stomach.

Smell has a chemical response to stimuli, which explains the wave of chemical response to your stomach when confronted with a negative smell. A yummy smell may make you hungry because it sends a chemical reaction that stimulates your gastric juices. Vladimir Nabokov wrote, "Nothing revives the past so completely as a smell." The average person takes about five seconds to breathe, two seconds to inhale and three to exhale. During an average year, we breathe 6,307,200 times and with every breath, we smell. The human body is capable of registering and recognizing thousands of different smells. Smell is ten times more sensitive than taste. Although smell is incredibly precise, it is almost impossible to describe a smell to someone who has not smelled it. It only takes 0.5 seconds to respond to smell as compared to 0.9 seconds to react to pain. We all have our own genetic encoded odor print as individual as our fingerprints and only identical twins smell alike.

Additionally, women who live together have the tendency to menstruate at the same time every month. This is attributed to a natural scent regulation of women living in close quarters who pick up a subtle glandular odor allowing their bodies to regulate themselves by using the pheromones.

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5. Absorption of Essential Oils through the Skin?

Skin is the largest organ of the body, weighing in at an average of 9 lbs. Our skin is a living, dying and rejuvenating organ, constantly on the move. Ill treatment of the skin can take 3 to 4 months to have an effect and visa versa. Skin is the packaging that keeps us warm, stops our insides from falling out and keeps the rain out. It is our outer warning system, alerting our brain about the environment we encounter. Skin is mostly waterproof, however it does allow substances with small molecular structures and low molecular weight to penetrate it. Molecules of essential oils pass through the skin's epidermis and are carried away by the capillary blood circulating in the dermis. They are then taken into the lymphatic and extracellular fluids at which point the therapeutic ingredients of the essential oils are broken down and used by various regions of the body.

After the essential oils perform healing functions they are metabolized and eliminated with the bodies other waste. Skin is our largest elimination organ. It takes anywhere from 20 minutes to 7 hours for skin to fully absorb essential oils, depending on body fat. Essential Oils are eliminated from our bodies within 3 to 26 hours through our saliva, urine, feces or sweat in a healthy adult. Essential Oils work as rubbish collectors, attaching themselves to toxins, free-radicals, cell debris, heavy metals, renegade cells, fungi, bacteria, viruses or other debris and taking them to the exits for disposal. Because of this, in an unhealthy adult, it can take up to 14 hours for the essential oils to pass through the body. The human body takes the most vital properties of essential oils and uses them to bring itself into balance and is left in a healthier state without side effects.

It is easy to test the absorption of essential oils. If you were to smear lavender essential oil onto your cheek, you would taste the lavender inside your mouth. Garlic essential oil can be smeared onto your ankle and the aroma will soon appear in your breath. Components of essential oils can be found in a blood sample taken after an application of essential oils. Essential oils can stimulate circulation to the surface skin cells, encourage cell regeneration and the formation of new skin cells. Some essential oils calm inflamed or irritated skin, release muscle spasms, soothe sore muscles and relieve muscular tension. Many scientists believe that essential oils stimulate the body's own natural defense systems. The positive effect of essential oils on blood circulation is well known. Studies have found that basil, tea tree and thyme essential oils can encourage the production of white blood cells, boosting the immune system of the body.

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6. Essential Oils at Work?

Certain essential oils act as natural balancers. They become adaptagens and will instigate a reaction in the body that is appropriate to achieve a state of homeostasis or balance. These reactions affect the autonomic nervous system, the endocrine system, blood pressure, hormone balance as well as many other systems. They respond to the human bodies need at any given time. For instance, if the system is stimulated the essential oil will have a relaxing effect. If the system is worn down and sluggish the essential oil will have a stimulating effect. The human body is able to take from the essential oil that which is good. Essential oils also work as phytohormones. The molecules mimic some of the hormones naturally occurring in the human body. They act as messengers or keys to the related systems.

When a combination is more than the sum of the parts, a synergetic effect has been created. Mixing together two or more essential oils creates a chemical compound that is different to any of the component parts. Synergetic blends are very powerful and potent.

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7. Extraction of Essential Oils?

The majority of essential oils are produced by steam distillation. Through steam distillation, the oily components of the plant are separated from the watery ones. The oily, volatile components are the basis of the plants scent. Through steam distillation, the essential oils are extracted from special glands or ducts of the plant. During the process of steam distillation, plant material is heated with water and brought to a boil. The steam, which contains the volatile essential oil runs through a cooler, it condenses and the oil is separated from the water and collected.

Other methods of extracting essential oils are sometimes used. Enfleurage, an old method of extraction involves immersing the flower petals in a fat so that the fat pulls the essential oil from the petal and becomes saturated with it. Then the fat and essential oils are separated. Maceration, a similar method of extraction involves heating the fat to about 60 degree Fahrenheit, which breaks down the plants cells containing the essential oils. Expression is the method used to extract essential oils from the oil sacs contained in the rinds of fruit (i.e. orange, lemon, lime, bergamot, mandarin and tangerine) using a machine to press the rind. Carbon dioxide extraction puts carbon dioxide under a high pressure to transform it into a supercritical state, making it exhibit qualities of both a gas and a liquid. This process runs at a lower temperature and it is very expensive. The Phytonic process uses non-chlorofluorocarbons to extract essential oils at even lower temperature. However, the majority of essential oils today are extracted through Steam Distillation.

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8. Properties of Essential Oils?

Each essential oil has it own therapeutic uses and other properties. Many essential oils have antibacterial, antifungal, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antineuralgic, antirheumatic, antispasmodic, anti-infectious, antiparasitic, antivenomous, antitoxic, antidepressant, sedative, nervine (relieves nervous disorders), analgesic (reduces pain sensation), hypotensol, hypertensol, digestive, expectorating, deodorizing, granulation stimulating, circulatory stimulating and diuretic qualities.

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9. Interesting Facts?

Musk is produced from a sack in the abdomen of the male musk deer and today it is scarce and costly. As a result, all musk oils are synthetically produced. There is no such thing as gardenia or vanilla essential oil and all products claiming to be pure essential oils can easily be identified as fakes by checking for musk, gardenia and vanilla fragrances. It takes 6,000 pounds of jasmine pedals to produce one pound of jasmine essential oil. In addition, Jasmine can only be picked 3 months out of the year between 2 a.m. and 5 a.m. It takes 4,000 pounds of rose pedals to produce 1 pound of rose essential oil. Roughly translated that means it takes about 30 roses to produce 1 drop of essential oil.

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10. Aromatherapy Updates?

Plants have an amazing living power in them: Essential Oils. Plants use Essential Oils to protect themselves and send chemical messages to each other. For example, a tree can produce a chemical called tannins, which can deter and even kill predators. In Africa a study was done to see how much extra tannin a tree would produce if it was whipped to stimulate a deer eating on it. Some tree produced up to an 94% increase in tannin after only 15 minutes, after an hour they showed a 282% increase. The trees used airborne chemical messages to nearby trees to alert them of danger. The surrounding trees all increased their tannin level. It then took the trees up to 100 hours to return to their natural state.

Where does modern medicine come from? ... Because of this amazing living power of essential oils that remains intact when extracted, nature became the original source of inspiration for modern medicine. 70% of all anti-tumor drugs are derived from native plant medicines. Morphine was isolated in 1806 from raw Poppy; Codeine is a derivative of morphine. Now chemists make "chemical cocktails" that have very little to do with the natural inspiration. The new molecular structure is different. All the years of trial of the natural product are lost in the new chemical structure.

Representatives of all the drug companies are searching the jungles and far corners of the world for new ideas and sources. They then take their finds to the lab to produce synthetic drugs. A 59% cure rate for Hepatitis B virus within 30 days has been found in a natural source. It has been used in several countries for over 2,000 years and will never reach an American suffering from Hepatitis B because drug companies will not spend the tens of millions of dollars to receive FDA approval. It is impossible to patent cures and natural remedies, and so they go unapproved by the FDA. For example, Lavender Essential oil works miraculously on burns. It can return severely burned skin to its normal condition with amazing accuracy and speed. Scientists have been unable to break the incredibly complex compound of Lavender essential oil to discover the secrets. As a result, people in burn units continue to suffer untreated by the best-known remedy known to man for burns.

Aromatherapy and natural remedies are often criticized for not having FDA approval. Yet, natural medicines have been used for thousands of years. The reason they are not promoted more is because it is impossible to patent them and, thereby, make money off their distribution. On the other hand, drugs approved by the FDA have a long history of doing harm. One patient in every 1000 admitted to the hospital will be killed by the medicine they receive there. Of the 68 million prescriptions for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs given to arthritis suffers between 10,000 and 20,000 deaths occur each year. No deaths can be attributed to the use of Essential Oils for arthritis suffers.

A pharmacist who was buying our Fungal Treatment System for her family said people are running scared from the new Antifungal drug out on the market today. It requires a liver test because of the known side effect in which the drug permanently damages the liver. And these are the safe drugs?

102 of 198 prescriptions drugs approved by the FDA between 1976 and 1985 caused such serious reactions that they had to be relabeled or completely removed from the market. That is a 52% error rate. In the United Kingdom, more people die from prescription drugs than in traffic accidents. This says nothing of the countless people suffering from the ill effects of prescriptions. Cancer, Car Accidents, and Gun shots are the top three causes of death in America . . . medical malpractice is the fourth leading cause of death in America.

Antibiotics have no effect on viruses. . . but essential oils do! Antibiotics cause secondary problems, Candida, a weakened immune system . . .essential oils have no such effect. Even birth control weakens our immune system.

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11. Hospital Studies?

Hospitals, Hospices and Nursing Homes are using essential oils to deodorize and cut down cross infections.

In Worchester Hospital in Hereford, England they did a 6 months study in which they discovered that vaporizing lavender caused their patients to have more natural sleep patterns and made them less aggressive. Many patients were able to be weaned of tranquilizers altogether.

In Minneapolis, essential oils are used to reduce the wandering of elderly patients.

At Churchill Hospital in Oxford, England, many of the Alzheimer's patents treated with essential oils have become more alert. Patients with dementia have become calmer.

St. Croix Valley Memorial Hospital in Wisconsin uses essential oils throughout the lobby, at the nurse's station and the emergency waiting room. They use anxiety relieving essential oils. They also have two floater mobile units to be used whenever the hospital has a special need.

At Memorial Sloan-Keeting Cancer Center in New York, they tested the anxiety level of patients going through MRI. 42 patients breathed normal air and 38 breathed air with essential oils. 63% of those exposed to the aroma experienced reduced anxiety levels.

At St. John's and St. Elizabeth's Hospital in London most of the midwives have become trained Aromatherapists. They use essential oils from the beginning of pregnancy to the aftercare.

At Royal Sussex County Hospital, they tested 36 patients that were in the intensive care and coronary care units. The control group received nothing, the second group received massage alone and the third group received aromatherapy massage. They followed their progress over 5 weeks. Systolic blood pressure dropped 50% with aromatherapy, 40% with massage alone and 16% for the control group. Respiratory rate decreased by 75% for the aromatherapy group, 41% for massage alone and 16% in the control group. Heart rate decreased by 91% for the aromatherapy group, 58% with massage alone and 41% for the control group.

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12. Essential Oils in the Work Place?

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in New York has found that people in pleasantly scented rooms carryout their work with more confidence, more efficiency and greater willingness to resolve work place conflict.

The Japanese have been using Essential oils in the work place for years. Construction companies employ special engineers to incorporate Aromatherapy into their new buildings.

At one Japanese bank, Lavender and Rosemary are used in the customer area to relax and sedate while the worker areas are infused with Lemon and Eucalyptus to keep workers alert. When Lavender is infused into the air, keyboard-punching errors fell by 20%, 33% with Jasmine and 54% with Lemon.

Calculus students were proven to increase their speed of learning by 230% with aromatherapy.

Lavender and Rose combined creates calm, stress-relief and reduces blood pressure. After lunch, Lemon and Jasmine are used to refresh and revitalize. Peppermint is dispersed into offices and conference rooms to increase work efficiency, dispel drowsiness and lessen mental fatigue. Lavender helps establish a positive mood.

The Tokyo stock exchange has Peppermint diffused into the atmosphere every afternoon to make brokers feel invigorated and refreshed.

Many workers have clocks that diffuse Eucalyptus and Pine before the alarm goes off.

Businesses that have invested in Aromatherapy for their workers have seen a major change (improvement) in attitude.

The Heath Promotion Research trust has found that 80% of workers report feeling unwell because of their working environment.

People who work in offices have 2x as many colds, coughs, and sore throats. Essential oils combat bacteria and viruses. Employers that invest in aromatherapy units find that they pay for themselves within the first week.

Occupational stresses weaken the immune system. Essential Oils in Retail Nike shoes were used to test if aromatherapy could be used to increase sales. Subjects were either in an unscented room or in one with a light floral aroma. Some 84% of the people in the aroma room were willing to purchase and they were willing to pay an average of $10.33 more for the same item. Proof that aromatherapy has an effect on impulse decision making.

Gambling machines with Aromatherapy increased sales by 45%.

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13. Studies in the Science of Essential Oils?

Hippocrates, Galen and Dioscorides researched and wrote about plants. Their research was later confirmed by 20th century research. Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, believed plants had antibacterial properties. He developed herbal medicine into a scientific discipline, basing prescriptions upon accurate observation and diagnosis. Galen, the physician to the gladiators, sent Greek soldiers into battle with a First aid kit containing Myrrh essential oil. Dioscorides, discovered the first source of aspirin made from willow.

During the plagues and epidemics in Europe the apothecary, the cosmetic chemist and the perfumers, who handled essential oils daily, escaped the plagues and epidemics without illness.

Buch, found that Lavender, Neroli and Sandalwood decrease the motility of mice, even when the mice are agitated with caffeine.

S. Torii, measured skin potential levels (SPL's) which are related to mental activity and correspond with the arousal of a test person. Chamomile was found to sedate and Jasmine was found to stimulate a test subject. SPL's changes were parallel to activity of the sympathetic nervous system. CNV shows the upward shifts in brain waves recorded by an EEG that occurs when a subject is tense or anticipating something. Torii found that Lavender decreased CNV and Jasmine increased CNV. This was confirmed by Kubota et al. Heart rate and blood pressure were also used to measure study effects.

In 1881, Koch studied the bactericidal action of terpentine (a chemical family of essential oil components) on anthrax spores.

In 1887, Chamberland studied the activity of the essences of Oregano, Cinnamon and Clove on bacillus anthracis.

Rene-Maurice Gattefosse's book:  Aromatherapie (1937)    In 1910, Martindale showed that the essential oil of Oregano is the strongest plant-derived antiseptic known to date. Oregano is 25 to 76 times more active than isolated phenol on the colibacillus.

In 1937, Rene-Maurice Gattefosse first introduced the term "Aromatherapy" in his book: Aromatherapie.

1949-1950 Schroeder and Messing developed a technique that later became the aromatogram (a testing method that allows one to examine the effectiveness of essential oils in treating a wide range of conditions).

1954-1956 Kellner and Kobert published a study on the action of 175 essential oils against eight airborne bacteria and fungi. They identified a group of 21 particularly effective oils, including Spanish Oregano.

In 1960, Maruzzella demonstrated antibacterial and antifungal effects of hundreds of aromatic compounds.

Professor Paolo Rovesti, Director of the Instituto Derivati Vegatali in Milan, was able to show that depression and anxiety could be relieved by the inhalation of the oils from certain plants.

In1964, Jean Valnet published The Practice of Aromatherapy. Valnet found that he was able to cure long-term psychiatric patients by administering essential oils with almost immediate results. In 1969, M. Girault used the aromatogram technique to develop effective essential oil treatments for the specific flora of each patient.

In 1972, H. Audhoui, P. Belaiche, J. Bourgeon, P. Duraffourd, C. Duraffourd, M. Girault, and J.C. Lapraz employed the aromatogram technique to develop treatments for a broad range of infectious illnesses. Forty essences and one tincture were studied.

In 1973, Jacques Pellecuer reestablished the antibacterial and antifungal actions of the Mediterranean labiatae, Rosemary and Thyme, and the phenomenal effectiveness of Satureja Montana (Winter Savory).

In 1973, Wagner and Sprinkmeyer demonstrated an essential oil mix to have broader activity than broad-spectrum antibiotics.

In 1974, Deininger provided clinical proof in double-blind studies on the effectiveness of essential oils for autonomic nervous system imbalances.

In 1977, Robert Tisserand published the first English language aromatherapy book: The Art of Aromatherapy.

In 1978, Paul Belaiche published his three-volume study on the clinical uses of aromatherapy for treating a wide range of infectious and degenerative illnesses.

In 1979, Kubeczka developed guidelines for determining the quality of essential oils used for medicinal purposes.

In 1987, Deininger and Lembke demonstrated antiviral activity of essential oils and their isolated components. At the Pasteur Institute microbes were isolated in a culture medium and then subjected to an essential oil. If the essential oil effectively killed or inhibited the bacterium, the result was considered positive.

Medical Aromatherapy : L'aromatherapie exactement (1990) by Pierre Franchomme and Daniel PenoelIn 1990, Pierre Franchomme and Daniel Penoel published the current textbook of medicinal aromatherapy: L'aromatherapie exactement.

In 1995, R. Deininger, one of the most respected essential oil researchers wrote, "The main use of the anti-microbial action of essential oils are trivial infections in the context of self-medication: Infections of the respiratory system (in combination with a spasmolytic actions of essential oils), skin infections (e.g. herpes virus), disease of the gastrointestinal tract (in combination with spasmolytic action), urinary tract infections (in connection with diuretic action). Advantages include a broad spectrum of activity. Side-effects are not to be expected when the products are used properly."

Today in France, essential oils are used primarily for infection control. Only Medical Doctors can be certified as Aromatherapists in France. Doctors prescribe essential oils and insurance companies pay for them.

Sometimes there is confusion about the difference between Fragrance Oils and Essential Oils. In addition to the common misconceptions and confusion on scenting, we have provided this link to help clarify and give you the Truth About Fragrance Oils. (Requires the free Adobe Acrobat Reader ... tip : adobe's site is slow ... this page will ultimately appear).



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